Classificação das formas de vida segundo Raunkiaer, adaptadas às .. co, relação planta-solo, planta indicadora e gradiente de vegetação (DU RIETZ, ;. Dentre outros sistemas definidos na época, o de Raunkiaer () foi o mais facilmente reconhecida e as formas de vida deveriam ser de natureza funcionais das espécies de florestas tropicais: altura máxima da planta, densidade. Los resultados documentan la diversidad de plantas vasculares que se desarrollan en Nosotros analizamos la composición taxonómica, la forma de vida y el origen . taxonomic composition, Raunkiaer’s life-form, and the.

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The vegetation spectrum, as the name indicates, is applied when one wants to know the vegetation, rather than the flora, of a given site. The life-form spectrum in Itirapina differed significantly from Raunkiaer’s normal spectrum. Therefore this class is well represented in our dataset and is discriminated by the hierarchical clustering in the assemblages 3, 5 and 6 Table III.

Axonopus marginatusSimarouba amaraAristida ekmanianaDigitaria ciliarisStylosanthes viscosaAndropogon bicornisMaprounea guianensis e Sabicia brasiliensis. When a biological spectrum is constructed with data collected in a single period, all life-forms with renewing buds not exposed to the air, i. Growth and generative reproduction of the plant species are concentrated on the aquatic phase in spring and the amphibic phase in early summer.

Plant-plant and plant-topography interactions on a rock outcrop at high altitude in southeastern Brazil. Aquatic plants that perennate from a bottom-dwelling organ such as a rhizome or tuber but whose shoots emerge, and display their leaves, above the water surface during the growing season, are termed emergent hydrophytes or helophytes Greek helos, marsh, see f Helophytes below.

Life form is a categorical trait assessed from field observation, descriptions or photos in the literature. Systematic Botany Monographs 6: The spatial isolation of the vernal pools favours allopatric speciation, resulting in endemic taxa and geographical vicariants, especially in taxa with restricted dispersal capacity.

Locating the perennating buds below the surface provides added protection from harsh-season conditions.

Supplementary Material 1 – Plant life form classification

For example, we classified a species as “phanerophyte” in the floristic and frequency spectra, even though some of their individuals were smaller than 50 tormas. The more abundant and probably more adapted species to the environmental conditions were Axonopus marginatus, Simarouba amara, Aristida ekmaniana, Digitaria ciliaris, Stylosanthes viscosa, Andropogon bicornis, Maprounea guianensis and Sabicia brasiliensis.


Despite the huge temperature and precipitation dde in the studied transect, plant assemblages are occurring almost along the whole range, supporting the hypothesis of azonality low dependence on macro-climate. Floristic, frequency, and vegetation life-form spectra of a cerrado site.

According to the PCA loadings, 4 groups of climatic variables raun,iaer be defined, highly correlated between each other Table IV. The sampling localities show a clear geographic and climatic pattern from higher mean temperatures and lower lae in the North to cooler and wetter climate in the South. These authors collected data along transects, crossing the whole vernal pool and including habitats of very different inundation period and becoming amphibic in different seasons.

The theory of island biogeography. Processes of vegetation change.

Boletim do Parque Nacional do Itatiaia Prostrate subshrubs, perennial cushion and rosette forms see 2. Here we give a simple, only slightly modified scheme SM 1 – Fig. The study included 39 vegetation islands of different sizes on each plateau, with 63 herb and shrub species, of which 22 are common to both plateaus.

The chamaephyte life-form was also predominant.

Cerrado species with potential for recovery of degraded areas for gold mining, Paracatu-MG

Series B, Biological Sciences Aims and methods of vegetation ecology. Rankiaer final dataset included records from plots. To analyse the correspondence between presence of species and PCA dimensions summarizing correlated climatic variables, we exported the PCA scores to the sampling localities into the dataset and draw boxplots showing the dispersal of assemblages in the PCA scores.

Centres of plant diversity. These species occur with preference in the bottom of seasonal pools Bliss et al. Since the importance of trees and shrubs increases from open to closed physiognomies Coutinho,the proportion of phanerophytes also increases in this direction.

To get data from homogeneous plots concerning inundation period and time of emergence, sample sites were delimitated according to their actual eco-phase. Diversity and Distributions Classification fomras of species according to hierarchical clustering. Comparative biology of neotropical epiphytic and saxicolous Tillandsia species: Life history and maximum plant lifespan which, however, for the seasons prior to their seed reproduction, must fall into one of the other life-form categories.


Cain suggested that some measure of the relative dominance of each species in the community would provide the most significant data. In order to produce sociological groups of species species of similar ecological requirementswe classified them into co-occurrence groups inverse classification according to Wilson et al.

This gradient includes sites with annual mean temperatures ranging from 6. Paracatu e o Morro do Ouro. Nevertheless, the life-form spectra of the cerrado vegetation so far constructed seem to be quite consistent, with phanerophytes and hemicryptophytes always being the most represented classes. There was a great floristic richness among sample units specieswhich influenced the formation of three groups in floristic similarity analysis.

Patterns of primary succession on granite outcrop surfaces.

formas de vida de las plantas raunkiaer pdf merge

Variation in species composition and abundance between the two plateaus suggest environmental and isolation differences affecting the species spatial distribution in the vegetation islands on each plateau. These species are amphibious annuals, tolerating longer flooding periods.

These conditions are se the one hand side strong environmental filters; on the other hand they can be quite similar over a broad macroclimatic gradient. To determine correlations between variables we used the PCA loadings, where high and low values indicate positive respectively negative correlation of a variable with a PCA axis.

formas de vida de las plantas raunkiaer pdf merge – PDF Files

The distribution and ecology of vernal pool plant species is poorly known Alvarez et al. Seasonal and interannual dynamics in dwarf rush vegetation in the Southwestern Iberian Peninsula. In Raunkiaer’s system, the more pronounced the unfavorable season, the more protected the renewing buds. For the purposes of this classification, perennating tissue comprises not only buds including those of specialized eaunkiaer organs mentioned in 2.

Biologia Bratislava 55 1: The interpretation of ecological data. We used the data regarding the life-form of each species to construct the floristic, frequency, and vegetation spectra Raunkiaer, ; Godron et al.

In the floristic life-form spectrum Fig.